Thermal power plants and hydro power plants
Electricity is an essential part of modern industrial society. It is suitable for long-distance transmission and the conversion to other forms of energy, ideal for the consumer, simple, reliable, clean and economical. The world's most significant electricity production occurs in thermal and hydroelectric power plants. At the same time, with the reduction of fossil fuel sources, the energetics sector is firmly turning to alternative energy sources. In the last ten years, wind energy has been elevated as the fastest growing branch of industry in the world and as one of the energy sources that every serious electricity network must count on in its system. According to the EWEA, the share of wind energy within the EU's overall electricity system is currently 8%.
Globally, the most significant electricity production is from fossil fuel power plants. Today's technology in such plants allows achieving a high degree of efficiency of over 60%, with a significant reduction in harmful emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2.
The INSTITUT IGH, JSC, can provide the following services in the realisation of projects in fossil fuel thermal power plants, taking into account the latest technological and environmental standards:
• GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH WORKS - Exploratory drilling in soil and rocks, sampling for laboratory tests, running laboratory tests, preparation of geotechnical reports, geotechnical projects and calculations, projects for the protection of construction pits, projects of special and deep foundations
• INVESTMENT-TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION - Development of master plans, feasibility studies, CBA analyses, investment programs, and separate studies and analyzes
• PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DOCUMENTATION - Assessment of the impact of the project on the environment, preparation of studies on environmental impact, and professional studies and bases
• PREPARATION OF PROJECT DOCUMENTATION - Preparation of preliminary, main and detailed projects
• CONDUCTING PROFESSIONAL SUPERVISION IN CONSTRUCTION - service of professional supervision of construction works, geotechnical supervision, mechanical works, electrical works, supervision of welding and AKZ, and supervision of geodetic works
• QA / QC - In the workshop and production facilities of structures and equipment, on the construction site and places of installation of structures and equipment, taking works over and final measurements and tests upon completion of works
• LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS and MEASUREMENTS - Testing of concrete on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site, testing of steel on samples in the laboratory or on the construction site, testing of compaction of soil and stone materials on the construction site, testing of welds and basic steel materials on samples in the laboratory or on the construction site (RT, UT, PT, MT), testing of the condition of the elements of concrete structures on the building, testing of the condition of the elements of steel structures on the building, testing of the condition and measurements of the primary and other equipment at the plant, and measurements of the main and auxiliary elements of the plant
• PROJECT MANAGEMENT - Project management, Owners Engineer services, all aspects of project management (legal, financial, technical and organizational), and contract management according to FIDIC or similar models
Wind energy development has taken significant proportions in recent years, and the power of individual wind turbines has increased tenfold in less than 20 years. Wind as an energy source is rapidly becoming one of the substantial energy sources, and soon by all criteria, it will stand alongside the traditional energy sources. The IGH Institute has joined the trend of growth and development of this energy source by providing services on wind farm projects, such as:
• Consulting services during project development, preparatory activities and during the execution of works, Owners Engineer services
• Professional supervision over the manufacture and installation of load-bearing steel structures of columns and foundation structures
• Development of main and detailed designs of steel columns of wind turbines and foundation structures
• Project management and consulting services
• Implementation of quality control procedures - A / QC
• On-field and laboratory testing of steel components of wind turbines
• Technical advice to investors during the project
Of all primary energy sources, only gas and renewable energy sources record a constant increase in the share globally. Today, the percentage of gas in the global energy source market is 25%, with a projection of further growth (Source: BP Energy Output 2035 Edition 2017).
Whether natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, it is delivered from the source or field to the end-users through a pipeline system, i.e. pipelines, block stations, metering and reduction stations, hubs and similar solutions.
The INSTITUT IGH, JSC, has many years of experience in projects for the construction of gas transmission systems in Croatia and the region. Our experts are trained to provide comprehensive services in the implementation of gas transmission system projects, such as:
• GEOTECHNICAL RESEARCH WORKS - Exploratory drilling in soil and rocks, sampling for laboratory tests, laboratory tests, preparation of geotechnical reports, geotechnical calculations and projects
• PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DOCUMENTATION - Environmental impact assessment, preparation of environmental impact studies, professional studies
• PREPARATION OF PROJECT DOCUMENTATION - Preparation of conceptual, main and implementation projects
• IMPLEMENTATION OF PROFESSIONAL SUPERVISION IN CONSTRUCTION - Providing services of professional supervision of construction works, geotechnical supervision, professional supervision of mechanical works, supervision of electrical works, supervision of cathodic protection, control of welding and AKZ, and supervision of geodetic works
• QA / QC - In the workshop and production facilities of structures and equipment, on the construction site and places of installation of structures and equipment, acceptance of works and final measurements and tests upon completion of works
• LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTS - Testing of concrete on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site, testing of steel on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site, compaction tests of earth and stone materials on the construction site, testing of welds on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site (RT, UT, PT, MT)
• PROJECT MANAGEMENT - Project management, Owners Engineer services, all aspects of project management (legal, financial, technical and organizational), contract management according to FIDIC or similar models
The electricity transmission network as a link between the power plant and the distribution network, i.e. customers, occupies a central place in the electricity system. The safety and reliability of the plant are the essential legal obligations of the transmission system operator that performs the energy activity of electricity transmission. Such electricity transmission in the Republic of Croatia takes place at a high voltage of 35-110 kV and a very high voltage of 400 kV through single-system and two-system transmission lines placed on poles of appropriate shapes and dimensions.
The INSTITUT IGH, JSC participates in the implementation of electricity transmission system projects in the Republic of Croatia and has experience in all phases of the implementation of such projects, providing a comprehensive service:
• Development of preliminary, main and detailed designs for connection of transmission lines to water fields of TS and switchyards at energy production units
• Development of preliminary, main and detailed designs of system transmission lines
• Development of main and detailed designs for transmission line foundations
• Preparation of workshop documentation for steel transmission line poles
• Professional supervision over the construction of system transmission lines
• Workshop supervision and control over the production of steel poles and transmission line portals (QA / QC)
• Preparation of documentation as part of the ecological network acceptability assessment procedure
• Preparation of environmental impact assessment - Environmental impact studies
Nuclear power plants
The INSTITUT IGH, JSC, can perform technical and geodetic observations of construction facilities in nuclear power plants, research works and rehabilitation projects for these facilities.
Technical observations are distinctly defined activities in the Technical Observations Project (visual inspections, monitoring and maintenance, measurement of relevant technical parameters) to ensure a sufficient fund of data whose processing and interpretation form conclusions about the condition of buildings in terms of stability, functionality, and make suggestions on necessary and the crucial activities on regular monitoring of the condition and maintenance and impact of buildings on the environment.
Implementation is based on comprehensive legislation based on the procedures and scope of observation and monitoring of the condition of NE buildings are defined, which can be divided into the following groups:
A) Nuclear Energy Legislation (IAEA, ANSI, ASME, ACI, etc.)
B) Legislation related to national regulations on construction, maintenance and safety of buildings
C) Other legislation related to the construction, maintenance and safety of buildings
The report on the results of technical and geodetic observation is a final report that includes all actions performed and provides a final assessment of the structure's condition (final categorization of damage) and a proposal for further measures to preserve the designed and basic requirements for the building.
Some of the references of IGH in this area, in the services of investigative works and technical observations, are the Nuclear Power Plant "Mohovce NPP, Unit 3 & 4" and the Nuclear Power Plant "Krško".
When it comes to research works and projects for the rehabilitation of buildings in nuclear power plants, the methodology for assessing the condition of the structure of buildings and the preparation of the rehabilitation project includes several actions. It is based on norm HRN EN 1504-9: 2001: Products and systems for protection and repair of concrete structures - Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity - Part 9: General rules for the use of products and systems.
When carrying out the analysis of the condition, design and control of the restoration, the sequence that completes all activities related to the planning and implementation of the repair of a particular structure should be followed.
This sequence includes:
• conducting investigative work (which includes analysis of the effect on the structure)
• assessment of the material condition, stability and load-bearing capacity of the structure
• development of variant solutions for optimization of project costs with its scope and investor possibilities
• development of main and detailed projects
• conducting supervision during the restoration
• carrying out technical supervision, i.e. quality control of works and materials for repair and protection of elements.
Prominent IGH references in this area include the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, the project for rehabilitation and protection of the concrete structure of the cooling tower II (CT-102-CTW-002) within the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, and the Design Supervision for the rehabilitation and protection of the cooling tower II (CT-102 -CTW-002).
Waste to energy
Municipal solid waste (SRW) from residential, industrial and commercial sources is the most common waste used for energy processing. However, construction, biological waste from agricultural activities and forestry, hazardous waste, and many other types can also be considered depending on their specific composition, quantity, energy density and society's needs for disposal of a particular type of waste suitable for processing into energy.
The World Bank estimates that, as a result of the waste production rate and considering projections of population growth and urbanization rates, global waste production will increase by almost 50% by 2025, amounting to more than 6 million tons per day. The system of sustainable waste management can thus be developed according to the previously adopted hierarchy of waste management, from waste collection to the final disposal and processing of waste into energy.
Proper waste management, collection, separation, processing and ultimately heat treatment are desirable to achieve the conditions for converting waste into usable energy with maximum efficiency and reducing adverse environmental impacts. Such an approach to converting waste into energy can ensure the production of electricity, heat, combined electricity and heat and transport fuels.
INSTITUT IGH JSC experts are qualified to provide services defined by the hierarchy of waste management in the segment of energy production from waste - Waste to Energy, which includes:
• Development of feasibility studies
• Development of CBA analysis
• Development of investment programs
• Preparation of environmental impact studies
• Development of conceptual, main and implementation projects
• Project management
• Provision of professional and technological supervision services
• Providing QA / QC services
• Implementation of control measures and inspections of structures and equipment in the workshop and on the construction site
• Conducting laboratory tests of materials
• Weld control by methods (RT, UT, PT, MT)
Notable references of the INSTITUT IGH, JSC in the field of energy production from waste are:
• Biogas plant Mala Branjevina 1, capacity 1MW, for waste from a cow farm
The service included the implementation of the professional and technological supervision and the development of conceptual main and detailed designs made by ETZ, a subsidiary of the INSTITUT IGH, JSC
• Biogas plant Mala Branjevina 2, capacity 1MW, for waste from a cow farm
The service included the implementation of the professional and technological supervision and the development of conceptual main and detailed designs made by ETZ, a subsidiary of the INSTITUT IGH, JSC
In the modern world, more and more goods and goods are available to an increasing number of people, thus increasing the need to increase industrial and energy potentials while encouraging sustainable development and competitiveness. In the approach, it is necessary to ensure balanced and responsible analysis, construction and management of industrial and energy capacity projects.
With a socially responsible approach, the INSTITUT IGH, JSC guarantees a professional, reliable and rational approach to industrial and energy projects from idea to realization in all segments of project analysis. We offer feasibility and environmental impact studies, construction and infrastructure projects, expert supervision, QA / QC, and project management. One of the options is the Owners Engineer service, as well as the preparation of professional and special studies, studies and analysis of projects, determining the condition and testing of structures and equipment, and rehabilitation and reconstruction projects.
Prominent references of the INSTITUT IGH, JSC in the field of Industrial Plants:
• INA Sisak Oil Refinery, Croatia
• INA Oil Refinery Rijeka, Croatia
• Pančevo Oil Refinery, Serbia
• Petrokemija Kutina Fertilizer Factory, Croatia
• Pliva drug factory Zagreb, Croatia
• Gredelj railway wagon factory Zagreb, Croatia
• Karlovac Beer Factory, Croatia
• CMC Željezara Sisak, Croatia
• Animal feed factory Belje, Darda, Croatia
• Sugar factories Viro, Virovitica and Županja, Croatia
• Vupik Winery, Vukovar, Croatia
• Saponia - chemical industry Osijek, Croatia
• Paper packaging factory Belišće, Croatia
• Svilana, silk factory Osijek, Croatia
• Borovo, rubber products and footwear factory, Borovo, Croatia
Overhead power lines
The electrical transmission network as a link between the power plants and the distribution network, i.e. buyers, occupies a central place in the electrical power system, while safety and reliability of the plant represent the fundamental legal obligations of the transmission system operator performing the energy activity of electrical power transmission.
Electricity in the Republic of Croatia is transmitted at high voltage of 35-110 kV and very high voltage of 400 kV, via single-circuit and double-circuit lines mounted on poles of appropriate shapes and dimensions.
Institut IGH participates in realization of electrical power transmission systems of such projects, by providing comprehensive services of:
• Development of preliminary, detailed and working designs for the connection of the overhead power line to line bays at TS and switchgears in energy production units
• Preparation of preliminary, detailed and working designs of system overhead power line
• Preparation of detailed and working designs for foundations of overhead line poles
• Preparation of workshop documentation of steel overhead line poles
• Technical supervision during construction of system overhead lines
• Workshop supervision and control during production of steel poles and portals (QA/QC)
• Preparation of documentation as a part of the procedure of acceptability assessment for the ecological network
• Development of environmental impact assessments – Environmental impact studies
Examples of important references of Institut IGH from this sector are as follows:
• Construction of connecting overhead power line DV 2×400 kV KKE Osijek – Ernestinovo, connection to switchgears of the combined cycle gas plant Osijek 500 and to line bays TS 400/110 kV Ernestinovo. The overhead power line is double circuit, on double circuit steel lattice towers, with barrel shaped heads. On this project, Institut IGH provided the following services: Development of the conceptual design and design for the structure 400/10kV Transformer Station Ernestinovo – line bays KKE Osijek/1 and KKe Osijek/2.
• Preparation of the conceptual design and design of the overhead power line DV 2×400 kV KKE Osijek- Transformer Station Ernestinovo. Preparation of documents in the procedures of preliminary assessment of acceptability for the ecological network and environmental impact assessment
In parallel to the reduction of sources and reserves of fossil fuels, the need for energy is growing worldwide, which is why the energy sector is shifting to alternative energy sources, and additional motivation is provided by increasing energy efficiency and long-term sustainability, i.e. the very ecological character of these sources. Over the last 10 years, wind energy has become the fastest growing branch of industry in the world, and one of energy sources that each electrical power supply network needs to take into account in its system. According to EWEA, the share of wind energy in the overall electrical power system of the EU currently amounts to 8%.
In the last 15 years, the development of wind energy has taken significant proportions, while the power of individual wind farms increased 10 times in less than 20 years. As an energy source, wind is quickly becoming one of the more important energy sources and in the near future it will stand side by side with conventional energy sources that are normally used across all criteria. Institut IGH joined the trend of growth and development of this energy source by providing services on wind power plant projects, such as:
• Consultancy during project development, preliminary activities and during execution of works, Owner’s Engineer services
• Technical supervision during construction and assembly of load bearing steel structures of towers and foundation structures
• Preparation of detailed and working designs of steel wind turbine towers and foundation structures
• Project management services, consultancy
• Implementation of quality control activities for works – A/QC • Field and laboratory testing of steel elements of wind turbines
• Technical advisory for the Investor during the project
IMPORTANT IGH’S REFERENCES:
• Kitka Wind Farm, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 9 wind turbines, of total power 32.4 MW.
• Wind Farm Kom-Orjak-Greda, Croatia, 5 wind turbines, of total power 10 MW.
• Kovačica Wind Farm, Serbia, 38 wind turbines, of total power of 95 MW.
• Čibuk Wind Farm 1, Serbia, 57 wind turbines, of total power 158 MW.
• Lukovac Wind Farm, Croatia, 7 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW and 9 wind turbines of individual power 3.2 MW, of total power 48.0 MW.
• Krnovo Wind Farm, Montenegro, 26 (20 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW and 6 wind turbines of power 2.5 MW), of total power 72.0 MW.
• Katuni Wind Farm, Croatia, 12 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW, of total power 34.2 MW.
• Ogorje Wind Farm, Croatia, 14 wind turbines of individual power 3.0 MW, of total power 42 MW.
• Rudine Wind Farm, Croatia, 12 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW, of total power 34.2 MW.
• Wind Farm Velika Glava, Bubrig and Crni Vrh (Danilo Wind Power Plant), Croatia, 19 wind turbines of individual power 2.3 MW, of total power 43.7 MW.
• Pometeno Brdo Wind Farm, Croatia, 15 wind turbines of power 1 MW and one wind turbine of power 2.5 MW, of total power of 17.5 MW.
• Trtar Krtolin Wind Farm, Croatia, 14 wind turbines of power 0.8 MW, of total power 11.2 MW.