Energy and Industry
Institut IGH is guided by a socially responsible approach in the fields of energetics and industry, since that is the only approach that ensures greater utilisation and efficiency of resources, at the same time reducing the harmful impacts on the environment.
01Thermal power plants and hydro power plants
Electrical energy is one of the foundations of the modern industrial society. It is suitable for transfer over great distances, and its conversion to other types of energy, suitable for consumers, is simple, reliable, clean and cost effective. The greatest part of electricity production at world scale takes place in thermal and hydro power plants.
At the global level, the greatest production of electrical energy is from thermal power plants fired by fossil fuels. The present technology in such plants enables achieving a high degree of efficiency of over 60%, with significantly reduced harmful emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2.
INSTITUT IGH is able to provide the following services in realization of thermal power plants fired by fossil fuels, taking into account the newest technological and environmental standards:
• GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS – investigations in soil and rocks, sampling for laboratory testing, laboratory testing, preparation of geotechnical reports, geotechnical calculations and designs, construction pit foundation designs, special and deep foundations designs
• INVESTMENT-TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION – preparation of Master Plans, development of feasibility studies, preparation of CBA analyses, preparation of Investment Programmes, preparation of offprints and analyses
• PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DOCUMENTS – environmental impact assessments, preparation of environmental impact studies, preparation of expert studies and support documents
• PREPARATION OF DESIGN DOCUMENTATION – development of preliminary designs, preparation of detailed designs
Development of working designs
• PROVISION OF TECHNICAL SUPERVISION DURING CONSTRUCTION – provision of services of technical supervision of construction works, provision of services of technical supervision of mechanical engineering works, provision of supervision services during electrical engineering works, provision of services of cathodic protection, provision of supervision services during welding and corrosion protection, provision of supervision services during surveying works
• QA/QC – In the workshop and production plants for structures and equipment, on the construction site and places of assembly of structures and equipment, takeover of works, final measurements and testing upon completion of works
• LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS – Concrete testing on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site, testing of steel on samples at the laboratory and on the construction site, testing of compaction of earth and stone materials on the construction site, testing of welds and basic steel materials on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site (RT,UT,PT,MT), testing of concrete structure elements on the structure, testing of steel structure elements on the structure, testing of the condition and measurements on main and other equipment at the plant, testing of condition and measurements on the main and auxiliary elements of the plant
• PROJECT LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT – Project management and leadership, Owner’s Engineer Services, all aspects of project management (legal, financial, technical and organizational)
Contract administration according to FIDIC models or similar models
Highlighted IGH’s references:
• Combined cycle gas power plant Osijek 500, fuel: natural gas, electrical power 450 MWe/2×80 MWt, direct heating system – flow 8 m³/s, connection to the network 2×400 kV
• Co-generation plant TE-TO Zagreb, fuel: natural gas/extra-light fuel oil/fuel oil, power 440MWe/850MWt
• Co-generation plant EL-TO Zagreb, fuel: natural gas/fuel oil, power 88.8 MWe/439 MWt
• Thermal Power Plants Plomin 1 and Plomin 2, fuel: coal, power 330 MWe, stack height 340 m
• TPP Sisak Unit C combined co-generation plant, fuel: natural gas, power 230MWe/50MWt
Out of all fundamental sources of energy, gas and renewable energy sources are the only ones that have registered a continuous increase in the share on the global level. Today, the share of gas in the world market of energy sources amounts to 25%, with a projection of further growth (Source: BP Energy Output 2035 Edition 2017).
Both natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas are transported from the source or gas field to the end users by a gas pipeline system from the source or gas field to the end users by a gas pipeline system, i.e. pipelines, block stations, reducing metering stations, junctions etc.
Institut IGH has years of experience in construction projects that involve gas transport systems in Croatia and the region. Our experts are qualified to provide comprehensive services in project implementation related to gas transport systems, including:
• GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS – trial boring in soil and rock, sampling for laboratory testing, laboratory testing, preparation of geotechnical reports, geotechnical calculations and designs
• PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DOCUMENTS – environmental impact assessments, environmental impact studies, expert studies
• PREPARATION OF DESIGN DOCUMENTATION – preparation of preliminary designs, preparation of detailed designs, preparation of working designs
• PROVISION OF TECHNICAL SUPERVISION DURING CONSTRUCTION – provision of technical supervision services during construction works, services of geotechnical supervision, provision of technical supervision during mechanical engineering works, supervision services for cathodic protection, provision of services during welding and corrosion protection, provision of supervision services during surveying works
• QA/QC – in the workshop and at production plants for structures and equipment, on the construction site and assembly sites for structures and equipment, taking over of works, final measurements and testing upon completion of works
• LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTING – testing of concrete on samples at the laboratory, and on the construction site, testing of steel on samples in the laboratory and on the construction site, compaction testing of earth and stone materials on the construction site, testing of welds on samples at the laboratory and on the construction site (RT,UT,PT,MT)
• PROJECT LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT – project leadership and management, Owner’s Engineer services, all aspects of project management (legal, financial, technical and organizational), contract administration according to FIDIC or similar models
Some of IGH’s references related to gas pipelines are as follows:
• Gas transport system Pula-Karlovac DN 300/50, L= 72 km + DN 500/75, L=45 km with pertaining reducing and metering stations, block stations and junctions
• Gas transport system Lika-Dalmatia DN 500/75, L=270.7 km + DN 200/50, L=85.3 km + DN 300/50, L=50.1 km, with pertaining reducing and metering stations, block stations and junctions
• Gas interconnection Hungary – Croatia – Bosnia and Herzegovina DN 800/75, L=85.9 km, with gas junctions Donji Miholjac and Slobodnica and reducing and metering stations
• Gas pipeline Zenica – Travnik in Bosnia and Herzegovina DN 400/50, L=43.5 km
03Nuclear power plants
Institut IGH is qualified to provide technical and geodetic monitoring of civil engineering structures at nuclear plants and investigations and rehabilitation designs for these structures.
1) TECHNICAL AND GEODETIC MONITORING OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (NPP)
Technical monitoring represents clearly defined activities in the Technical Monitoring Design (visual inspections, condition monitoring and maintenance, measuring of relevant technical parameters) in order to ensure a sufficient fund of data, and based on the processing and interpretation of which conclusions about structures in terms of stability, functionality etc. are formed and proposals made with respect to essential and required activities of regular monitoring of the condition, maintenance and the impact of structures on the environment.
Implementation is founded on extensive legislation based on which procedures are defined and the scope of observations and monitoring of the condition of structures at NPP, which can be divided into the following groups:
A) Legislation related to nuclear energetics (IAEA, ANSI, ASME, ACI, etc.)
B) Legislation related to national regulations on construction, maintenance and safety of structures
C) Other legislation related to construction, maintenance and safety of structures
Report on the results of technical and geodetical monitoring is the final report which includes all actions performed and gives a final structural condition assessment (final damage classification) and a proposal of further measures for the purposes of conservation of designed and fundamental requirements for the structure.
Some of IGH’s references for services of investigations and technical monitoring are as follows:
• Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 & 4
• Krško Nuclear Power Plant
2) INVESTIGATIONS AND REHABILITATION DESIGNS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (NPP)
Methodology for the implementation of condition assessment of civil engineering structures and development of rehabilitation designs includes several actions and is based on statements from the standard HRN EN 1504-9: 2001: Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity – Part 9: General principles for the use of products and systems. When implementing condition analysis and after that designing and controlling repairs of the structure, the order that rounds off all activities related to planning and implementation of repairs of a certain structure shall be followed.
This order includes the following phases:
• performance of investigations (which include the analysis of actions on the structure)
• condition assessment of materials, and assessment of stability and bearing capacity of the concerned structure
• development of alternative solutions for optimization of project costs with its scope and investor’s possibilities
• development of detailed and working designs
• provision of supervision during execution of repairs
• implementation of technological supervision, i.e. quality control for works and materials for repair and protection of elements.
Prominent references of IGH in the respective area:
• Investor Krško Nuclear Power Plant
• Design of rehabilitation and protection of the concrete structure of the cooling tower II (CT-102-CTW-002) within Krško Nuclear Power Plant
• Designer supervision during implementation of rehabilitation and protection of the cooling tower II (CT-102-CTW-002)
04Waste to energy
Municipal solid waste (MSW) from residential, industrial and commercial sources is the most frequent source of waste used for converting to energy, however construction and biological waste, waste from agricultural activities and forestry, hazardous waste and many other types can also, depending on their specific composition, quantity, energy density and needs of the society to dispose a certain type of waste, can be considered suitable for processing into energy.
INSTITUT IGH and its experts are competent for the provision of services defined by the waste management hierarchy in the segment of waste to energy production, which includes:
• Preparation of feasibility studies
• Preparation of CBA analyses
• Preparation of investment programmes
• Preparation of environmental impact studies
• Preparation of preliminary, detailed and working designs
• Project management
• Provision of technical and technological supervision services
• Provision of QA/QC services
• Implementation of control measures and inspections of structures and equipment at the workshop and on the construction site
• Laboratory testing of materials
• Control of welds by different methods (RT, UT, PT, MT)
The World Bank estimates that, in consequence of the rate of waste production, and taking into account projections of an increase in employment and urbanization rate, the world waste generation will grow by almost 50% by 2025, and it will amount to more than 6 million tons a day. In the next 13 years, the total production of municipal solid waste will grow by 71% on average. A sustainable waste management system can thus be developed according to a previously adopted waste management hierarchy, from waste collection to final disposal and waste to energy conversion.
By proper waste management, its collection, separation, treatment and finally thermal treatment, it is desirable to achieve conditions of converting waste to usable energy with maximum efficiency and reducing the unfavourable environmental impacts. Such an approach to waste to energy conversion can ensure the production of electricity, thermal energy, combined electric and thermal energy and transport fuels.
Production and conversion of energy from waste can be achieved by using different technologies. All waste-to-energy solutions have specific characteristics and can be cost-effective, depending on factors such as the type and composition of waste, its energy density, desired final energy form, thermodynamic and chemical conditions under which the facility where waste is converted to energy operates and the overall energy efficiency (up to 40%) and the environmental impact. According to research of industrial markets, the value of the global market of thermal treatment of waste is expected to grow at an average annual growth rate of 6.2%. It is expected that the global market will retain a stable growth rate until 2023, and it is estimated that its value will then amount to USD 40 billion.
Potential advantages of waste to energy conversion model
Waste-to-energy conversion projects should be considered as a part of a greater waste management hierarchy, but in many countries a greater amount of waste is produced than it is possible to efficiently recycle or process, which makes the technologies for reducing the weight of waste, such as thermal treatment, necessary for reducing the volume of waste. The main advantages of such processes are:
• Waste reduction – The weight of waste is usually reduced by 60 to 70% and certain waste products can be recycled as aggregates
• Landfill stabilization – The weight of waste remaining after thermal treatment – ash or remaining waste – is stable and it does not release methane
• Energy production – By means of generator of the gas and/or steam turbine, it is possible to produce 450-600kWh of energy per ton of waste
• Energy security – Energy from waste will reduce dependence on imported energy
• Long-term cost reduction – Thermal treatment will help reduce costs related to the high price of input charges for waste and increased landfill tax
• Reducing or eliminating harmful environmental impacts
• Treatment of almost all types of waste including medical, hazardous, asbestos waste and other
Effects of municipal solid waste management on the environment are being extensively studied worldwide. Studies are focused on the environmental impacts of numerous municipal solid waste management methods, such as recycling, landfills, thermal treatment and anaerobic digestion. Several research papers exploring the optimal combinations of municipal solid waste management gave similar recommendations, which is that landfills have very detrimental impacts on the environment and their use needs to be reduced to a lowest possible degree. Recycling should be encouraged and applied as much as possible, while recovering energy from waste of high energy density should be used to the maximum extent possible.
Highlighted references of Institut IGH in the Waste-to-Energy sector:
• Biogas plant Mala Branjevina 1, power 1MW, for cow farm waste
The service included implementation of services of technical and technological supervision and preparation of preliminary, detailed and working designs prepared by ETZ, a daughter company of Institut IGH
• Biogas plant Mala Branjevina 2, power 1MW, for cow farm waste
The service included implementation of services of technical and technological supervision and preparation of preliminary, detailed and working designs prepared by ETZ, a daughter company of Institut IGH
In the modern world, a growing number of goods and services is available to a growing number of people, which in turn increases the need to amplify the industrial and energy potential, and stimulate sustainable development and competitiveness. It is necessary to provide uniform and responsible analysis, construction and management of projects of industrial and energy facilities in the approach itself.
In addition to the socially responsible approach, Institut IGH guarantees a professional, responsible and rational approach to industrial and energy projects from idea to realization in all segments of project analysis, feasibility studies, environmental impact studies, all types of civil engineering and infrastructural projects, technical supervision, QA/QC, project management, Owners’ Engineer services, expert and special studies, reports and project analysis, determination of condition and testing of structures and equipment and rehabilitation designs.
06Overhead power lines
The electrical transmission network as a link between the power plants and the distribution network, i.e. buyers, occupies a central place in the electrical power system, while safety and reliability of the plant represent the fundamental legal obligations of the transmission system operator performing the energy activity of electrical power transmission.
Electricity in the Republic of Croatia is transmitted at high voltage of 35-110 kV and very high voltage of 400 kV, via single-circuit and double-circuit lines mounted on poles of appropriate shapes and dimensions.
Institut IGH participates in realization of electrical power transmission systems of such projects, by providing comprehensive services of:
• Development of preliminary, detailed and working designs for the connection of the overhead power line to line bays at TS and switchgears in energy production units
• Preparation of preliminary, detailed and working designs of system overhead power line
• Preparation of detailed and working designs for foundations of overhead line poles
• Preparation of workshop documentation of steel overhead line poles
• Technical supervision during construction of system overhead lines
• Workshop supervision and control during production of steel poles and portals (QA/QC)
• Preparation of documentation as a part of the procedure of acceptability assessment for the ecological network
• Development of environmental impact assessments – Environmental impact studies
Examples of important references of Institut IGH from this sector are as follows:
• Construction of connecting overhead power line DV 2×400 kV KKE Osijek – Ernestinovo, connection to switchgears of the combined cycle gas plant Osijek 500 and to line bays TS 400/110 kV Ernestinovo. The overhead power line is double circuit, on double circuit steel lattice towers, with barrel shaped heads. On this project, Institut IGH provided the following services: Development of the conceptual design and design for the structure 400/10kV Transformer Station Ernestinovo – line bays KKE Osijek/1 and KKe Osijek/2.
• Preparation of the conceptual design and design of the overhead power line DV 2×400 kV KKE Osijek- Transformer Station Ernestinovo. Preparation of documents in the procedures of preliminary assessment of acceptability for the ecological network and environmental impact assessment
In parallel to the reduction of sources and reserves of fossil fuels, the need for energy is growing worldwide, which is why the energy sector is shifting to alternative energy sources, and additional motivation is provided by increasing energy efficiency and long-term sustainability, i.e. the very ecological character of these sources. Over the last 10 years, wind energy has become the fastest growing branch of industry in the world, and one of energy sources that each electrical power supply network needs to take into account in its system. According to EWEA, the share of wind energy in the overall electrical power system of the EU currently amounts to 8%.
In the last 15 years, the development of wind energy has taken significant proportions, while the power of individual wind farms increased 10 times in less than 20 years. As an energy source, wind is quickly becoming one of the more important energy sources and in the near future it will stand side by side with conventional energy sources that are normally used across all criteria. Institut IGH joined the trend of growth and development of this energy source by providing services on wind power plant projects, such as:
• Consultancy during project development, preliminary activities and during execution of works, Owner’s Engineer services
• Technical supervision during construction and assembly of load bearing steel structures of towers and foundation structures
• Preparation of detailed and working designs of steel wind turbine towers and foundation structures
• Project management services, consultancy
• Implementation of quality control activities for works – A/QC • Field and laboratory testing of steel elements of wind turbines
• Technical advisory for the Investor during the project
IMPORTANT IGH’S REFERENCES:
• Kitka Wind Farm, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 9 wind turbines, of total power 32.4 MW.
• Wind Farm Kom-Orjak-Greda, Croatia, 5 wind turbines, of total power 10 MW.
• Kovačica Wind Farm, Serbia, 38 wind turbines, of total power of 95 MW.
• Čibuk Wind Farm 1, Serbia, 57 wind turbines, of total power 158 MW.
• Lukovac Wind Farm, Croatia, 7 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW and 9 wind turbines of individual power 3.2 MW, of total power 48.0 MW.
• Krnovo Wind Farm, Montenegro, 26 (20 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW and 6 wind turbines of power 2.5 MW), of total power 72.0 MW.
• Katuni Wind Farm, Croatia, 12 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW, of total power 34.2 MW.
• Ogorje Wind Farm, Croatia, 14 wind turbines of individual power 3.0 MW, of total power 42 MW.
• Rudine Wind Farm, Croatia, 12 wind turbines of individual power 2.85 MW, of total power 34.2 MW.
• Wind Farm Velika Glava, Bubrig and Crni Vrh (Danilo Wind Power Plant), Croatia, 19 wind turbines of individual power 2.3 MW, of total power 43.7 MW.
• Pometeno Brdo Wind Farm, Croatia, 15 wind turbines of power 1 MW and one wind turbine of power 2.5 MW, of total power of 17.5 MW.
• Trtar Krtolin Wind Farm, Croatia, 14 wind turbines of power 0.8 MW, of total power 11.2 MW.